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CBD Oil: concept and way of working
The hemp plant owes its psychogenic effect to the content of biologically active compounds – cannabinoids. The combination of hundreds of isomers from this group provides a steady euphoria, as well as a change in consciousness. Among the drugs – cannabidiol (cannabidiol, abbreviation – CBD), which does not have psychogenic properties.
Among the pharmacologically active components contained in CBD Oil, the most studied substances are considered to be CBD (cannabidiol) and THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). Both compounds come from a single, cannabigerol, which is formed after the fermentation of the products of the interaction of pyrophosphate salts with olivitol acids. In fact, these are two isomers of the cannabinol series, slightly different in structure and chemical name, but their effect on the human body is completely different. Physico-chemical characteristics of cannabidiol:
- White crystals with a shiny surface;
- Each crystal has a regular prismatic shape;
- Soluble in organic matter – ether, ethanol, benzene.
All cannabinoids, including CBD, interact with certain receptors in the human body, which are called CB1 and CB2. CB1 receptors are located all over the body, but most of them are located in the brain. These receptors interact with coordination, movement, pain, emotions, mood, thinking, appetite and memories. CB2 receptors are mainly present in the immune system. They have an effect on inflammation and pain. Scientists believe that the cannabidiol formula is transformed by hemp fermentation, and the substance becomes psychoactive – tetrahydrocannabinol. The latter is oxidized to cannabinol, losing its active properties. The mechanism of action of cannabidiol on the human body was announced by its discoverer, Roger Adams. The first selection of the compound dates back to 1940. Animal studies have proven the ability of a substance to inhibit the excitability of cannabinoid receptors in the brain, neutralizing the stimulating effect of THC. A little later, a similar effect of cannabidiol on opioid receptors was investigated. After that, theories about prevention, as well as treatment with cannabidiol addiction to opiates and heroin, arose. However, the risk of uncontrolled drug use slowed down research on substances harvested from cannabis.
CBD Oil as a medical substance
The use of hemp active substances for medical purposes requires clinical trials. The status of the plant as the most common drug makes it difficult to carry out. The results of research belonging to the United States, proved the absence of a narcotic effect while using CBD Oil. Moreover, the compound suppresses the psychogenic effect of other drugs. Tests have revealed other significant medicinal properties of cannabidiol:
- Anticonvulsant (anticonvulsant);
- Pain reliever.
Clinical application has established the ability of CBD to reduce the manifestations of tremor of limbs in Parkinson’s disease. The anticonvulsant effect of the substance reduces the number and intensity of epileptic seizures during uncontrolled epilepsy. In 2007, the ability of CBD to suppress the growth of cancer cells and prevent the metastasis of tumors localized in the chest was proven. Cannabis-based drugs are used to alleviate the pain associated with cancer. They are prescribed as an antiemetic with intensive chemotherapy. In Spain, cannabidiol medicine is acquired illegally for the treatment of spasms accompanying multiple sclerosis. Scientists note high rates of anxiogenic and neuroprotective action of CBD. The tool allows to facilitate the course of various forms of schizophrenia, eliminate anxiety, psychotic disorders. Cannabidiol is an effective substance against alcoholic neurodegeneration, as it stabilizes and also restores the brain receptors responsible for human learning and memory. The antibacterial effect of the substance against propionic bacteria (acne provocateurs) and Staphylococcus aureus is superior to those of modern antibiotics.
At the moment, the problem has been the isolation of natural cannabidiol from plant materials. Extraction of the substance occurs with its natural satellite – THC. The output was a synthetic synthesis of CBD. There are two drugs based on it – Marinol tablets and Nabilon. Synthetic analogues are used as anesthetics, but scientists have reason to believe that natural CBD is much more effective.
Medical effects of CBD Oil
CBD oil provides medicinal effects because it interacts with a unique “signaling” network of cells in the human body. This network is called the endocannabinoid system (ECS), and it was named after cannabis. First of all, ECS is considered a network of stress reactions. Under the “stress” we are not talking about a bad day at work. Rather, in our case, stress refers to any activity that threatens homeostasis. Homeostasis is, in simple words, your “internal scales”. Something is wrong in the body – homeostasis by co-ordinated reactions will try to restore “internal balance”.
Exercise, for example, can be considered stress. After training, the body responds by increasing the level of endocannabinoids in circulation. It contributes to feelings of bliss, relief of pain, and perhaps even helps you begin to feel hungry. Researchers are still exploring (well, what else can researchers do if they are not explored?) The ways in which CBD interacts with the endocannabinoid system. However, according to science, CBD works by blocking the enzymatic destruction of endocannabinoid molecules. By preventing their tearing, more endocannabinoids become available to your body. As it turned out, these endocannabinoids play an important role in people’s health and behavior. In general, the endocannabinoid system plays a role in:
- Bone growth;
- Your emotions;
- Fetal growth in pregnant women;
- The amount of your memory;
- Perception of pain;
- Reproductive function;
- While sleeping;
- Stress reactions;
- Temperature regulation;
- Mental activity.
However, an increase in the level of endocannabinoids in the body is not the only way in which CBD oil works. Studies show that cannabis compounds can improve mood by attracting serotonin receptors, in other words, attracting endorphin.
CBD oil: methods of use
- can be used orally;
- rub into the skin;
- take inhalation;
- administered intravenously.
CBD oil – effective analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent
Some scientists believe that CBD is a more natural alternative to existing analgesic medicaments. A study published in the journal Experimental Medicine found that CBD can significantly reduce chronic inflammation or pain. Researchers suggest that CBD may become a new treatment for chronic pain. Already, it is actively used to eliminate chronic pain associated with multiple sclerosis or fibromyalgia.
CBD oil helps fight bad habits
There is encouraging evidence that using a CBD helps to quit smoking. An experimental study published in the journal Addictive Behaviors showed that smokers who used an inhaler containing a CBD compound smoked fewer cigarettes and did not experience any additional addictions to nicotine. Another similar study, published in Neurotherapeutics, showed that CBD can help people who abuse opioids get rid of their addiction. The researchers noted that some of the symptoms experienced by patients with disorders associated with the use of psychoactive substances can be reduced with the help of CBD. These include anxiety, mood swings, pain and insomnia.
CBD oil – is it really effective and safe in reality?
Cannabidiol oil (CBD), which legalizes medical marijuana, has become a new sales hit in the United States. A non-toxic marijuana extract is credited with helping to cure a variety of medical problems, from epileptic seizures and anxiety to inflammation and insomnia. However, experts argue that the benefits of this product are greatly exaggerated. In addition, most of them are still poorly proven.
Worst of all, the distribution of cannabidiol oil today is not regulated at all, which leads to the fact that completely different quality products based on this extract appear on the market, says Marcel Bonn-Miller, associate professor of psychology and psychiatry at the School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania.
“This is just some kind of Wild West,” says Bonn-Miller. “Joe Bob, who started a company selling this oil, can write anything on the label and be able to sell his product to people.”
Cannabidiol is extracted from the flowers and buds of marijuana or cannabis plants. He does not stupefy the person; The “buzz” in marijuana is caused by the chemical substance tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). According to government journals, CBD oil is legal in 30 states where the use of marijuana for medicinal or pleasure purposes is legal. According to the Journal of Prevention, another 17 states have laws that regulate the distribution and use of cannabidiol oil. Among them are Alabama, Georgia, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Wisconsin and Wyoming.
Treating epilepsy is the only benefit which was really proved
Of all the declared beneficial properties of cannabidiol, only the ability to treat epilepsy has a scientific basis. The US Food and Drug Administration advisory group unanimously approved the Epidiolex CBD for the treatment of two rare forms of pediatric epilepsy.
“This is really the only area where the benefits of this product are so indisputable that the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved the use of a new drug for this purpose,” says Timothy Welty, head of the department of clinical science at the College of Pharmacy and Drake University Medical School in Des Moines, Iowa.
Evidence of the other potential beneficial properties of cannabidiol is not enough to make unambiguous conclusions. For example, some clinical trials show that CBD can be effective in treating anxiety symptoms – especially in treating social phobia, says Bonn-Miller. This is one of those possible beneficial properties of CBD, which has the greatest amount of evidence – after the benefits of treating epilepsy, however, “there is still much less evidence than in matters relating to epilepsy,” says Bonn-Miller. “There were clinical trials among adults, but there were far fewer studies than pediatric epilepsy,” he says.
Experts believe that the following – according to an objective amount of scientific evidence – a useful property of cannabidiol is the ability to fight various inflammations. However, the evidence here, mainly, has so far been obtained only during animal studies.
Most of the other claimed beneficial properties are not sufficiently proven
Other possible beneficial properties of cannabidiol – such as neuroleptic and antidepressant properties, as well as help in treating insomnia “were proven, for the most part, only in animal studies – and, perhaps, only a couple of people showed up,” says Bonn-Miller.
Welty confirms that studies on other possible beneficial properties of cannabidiol with human participation were either reports of any cases of disease, or studies that did not compare the results with the control group of people who did not use oil.
“If there is no control group, then how do we know if it was the effect of the drug treatment — or just the placebo effect, because the subject thought he was being given a medicine that would help him?” Says Welty.
In addition, experts are concerned about the quality of the oil itself and its possible side effects.
Lack of control
According to Bonn-Miller, due to the legally bleak nature of marijuana, the FDA does not particularly regulate the circulation of products such as CBD oil. State governments are struggling to establish any laws in this area, but they do not have the capabilities of the federal government. Meanwhile, in a study by Bonn-Miller and his team in 2017, it was proved that about 7 out of 10 CBD products do not contain the concentration of cannabis extract stated on the label. Approximately 43% of the drugs contained cannabidiol in too low a concentration, while approximately 26% of the drugs contained an extract concentration that was too high, says Bonn-Miller.
“Cannabidiol is a fairly complex drug, it is poorly absorbed if taken orally,” explains Welty. “With a similar method of its reception hardly 20% of the consumed amount is assimilated. If you take the drug incorrectly, your body may lose the medicine.”
Bonn-Miller and his team found out that every 1 out of 5 CBD products contains a toxic chemical THC.
“This is serious because THC can increase anxiety. Or aggravate cramps. This is what you should know about if you are going to take such drugs, ”says Bonn-Miller. “If I bought such a drug for myself or for my child, I would like the relevant authorities to check it before. Then I could trust the composition written on its label, ”Bonn-Miller concluded.
The popularity of cannabidiol (CBD) in the treatment of epilepsy attacks and other severe, including chronic diseases, especially concerning children, contributed to the fact that psychoactive cannabis was legalized in such a complex state in this respect, like Florida (USA). The adoption of laws relating to CBD brought some risks, in particular, confusion in certain concepts used in the cannabis industry.
While cannabis seed oil has been legally sold in North and South America for many years, businessmen began to advertise butter with a high content of CBD as hemp, relying on new state regulations. Not so long ago, US cannabis expresses their views on “mistakenly designated oil from CBD as hemp”. The promotion of high-CBD oil is a matter of concern for professionals who fear that recent technical cannabis bills may be erroneous and cause hemp oil to be equated to high-CBD oil. Hemp oil is a generic term for oil from cannabis seeds, obtained by pressing, which contains a small amount of CBD. In contrast, cannabidiol extracts are extracted directly from cannabis flowers, in which the content of CBD is more than 15%.
Possible effects of interaction with other drugs
Research results also suggest that cannabidiol preparations may also interact differently with other drugs. For example, research on epilepsy has shown that “people taking CBD drugs have a higher concentration of other antiepileptic drugs in their blood,” says Welty. This may mean that people taking anti-epileptic drugs along with CBD should lower the dosages of the drugs they take to avoid side effects, says Welty. In addition, some studies suggest that CBD can be potentially dangerous to the liver. Approximately 10 percent of people who took CBD during research showed an increase in liver enzymes in the body, indicating possible liver damage, Welty says. “About 2-3% of people taking CBD actually had to stop treatment because their liver enzymes already reached an alarming concentration,” he says. Welty recommends that people who are planning to take cannabidiol oil find a doctor who would explain to them what kind of extract it is and how to take it. “My main advice to people is to find a doctor who understands how and for what purposes cannabidiol is used. You need to constantly consult with a specialist, rather than just buying a CBD, thinking that he will solve all your problems,” Welty says.
Previously, in the United States it was possible to sell products from technical hemp containing less than 0.3% THC legally. This was permitted by the Controlled Substances Act. However, if the government decides to make the CBD an illegal substance, it will create havoc in the country’s growing cannabis industry. Eric Stinstra, executive director of the Hemp Industries Association (United States Industrial Cannabis Association), explained how important it is for people who manufacture products with CBD content to label their products accurately and clearly so as not to cause confusion in the cannabis market.
According to federal laws, there are currently 16 states in which farmers can grow industrial hemp, provided they are part of a pilot project with the University or the Department of Agriculture. These states are California, Colorado, Hawaii, Indiana, Kentucky, Maine, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Washington and West Virginia. In Colorado and Kentucky, pilot projects flow smoothly. Unfortunately, if people identify hemp oil and oil with a high content of CBD, the border between industrial hemp and medical will begin to blur.